“Income Computation and Disclosure Standard II (ICDS 2)” relating to Valuation of Inventories
(corresponding to AS-2 issued by the ICAI)
This Income Computation and Disclosure Standard is applicable for computation of income chargeable under the head “Profits and gains of Business or profession” or “Income from other sources” and not for the purpose of maintenance of books of accounts.
In the case of conflict between the provisions of Income Tax Act, 1961 (‘the Act’) and this Income Computation and Disclosure Standard, the provisions of the Act shall prevail to that extent.
- This Income Computation and Disclosure Standard shall be applied for valuation of inventories, except:
- Work-in-progress arising under ‘construction contract’ including directly related service contract which is dealt with by the Income Computation and Disclosure Standard on construction contracts;
- Work-in-progress which is dealt with by other Income Computation and Disclosure Standard;
- Shares, debentures and other financial instruments held as stock-in-trade which are dealt with by the Income Computation and Disclosure Standard on securities;
- Producers’ inventories of livestock, agriculture and forest products, mineral oils, ores and gases to the extent that they are measured at net realisable value;
- Machinery spares, which can be used only in connection with a tangible fixed asset and their use is expected to be irregular, shall be dealt with in accordance with the Income Computation and Disclosure Standard on tangible fixed assets.
2(1) The following terms are used in this Income Computation and Disclosure Standard with the meanings specified:
- “Inventories” are assets:
- held for sale in the ordinary course of business;
- in the process of production for such sale;
- in the form of materials or supplies to be consumed in the production process or in the rendering of services.
- “Net realisable value” is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
2(2) Words and expressions used and not defined in this Income Computation and Disclosure Standard but defined in the Act shall have the meanings assigned to them in that Act.
- Inventories shall be valued at cost, or net realisable value, whichever is lower.
Cost of Inventories
- Cost of inventories shall comprise of all costs of purchase, costs of services, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.
Costs of Purchase
- The costs of purchase shall consist of purchase price including duties and taxes, freight inwards and other expenditure directly attributable to the acquisition. Trade discounts, rebates and other similar items shall be deducted in determining the costs of purchase.
Costs of Services
- The costs of services shall consist of labour and other costs of personnel directly engaged in providing the service including supervisory personnel and attributable overheads.
Costs of Conversion
- The costs of conversion of inventories shall include costs directly related to the units of production and a systematic allocation of fixed and variable production overheads that are incurred in converting materials into finished goods. Fixed production overheads shall be those indirect costs of production that remain relatively constant regardless of the volume of production. Variable production overheads shall be those indirect costs of production that vary directly or nearly directly, with the volume of production.
- The allocation of fixed production overheads for the purpose of their inclusion in the costs of conversion shall be based on the normal capacity of the production facilities. Normal capacity shall be the production expected to be achieved on an average over a number of periods or seasons under normal circumstances, taking into account the loss of capacity resulting from planned maintenance. The actual level of production shall be used when it approximates to normal capacity. The amount of fixed production overheads allocated to each unit of production shall not be increased as a consequence of low production or idle plant. Unallocated overheads shall be recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred. In periods of abnormally high production, the amount of fixed production overheads allocated to each unit of production is decreased so that inventories are not measured above the cost. Variable production overheads shall be assigned to each unit of production on the basis of the actual use of the production facilities.
- Where a production process results in more than one product being produced simultaneously and the costs of conversion of each product are not separately identifiable, the costs shall be allocated between the products on a rational and consistent basis. Where by-products, scrap or waste material are immaterial, they shall be measured at net realisable value and this value shall be deducted from the cost of the main product.
- Other costs shall be included in the cost of inventories only to the extent that they are incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.
- Interest and other borrowing costs shall not be included in the costs of inventories, unless they meet the criteria for recognition of interest as a component of the cost as specified in the Income Computation and Disclosure Standard on borrowing costs.
Exclusions from the Cost of Inventories
- In determining the cost of inventories in accordance with paragraphs 4 to paragraphs 11, the following costs shall be excluded and recognised as expenses of the period in which they are incurred, namely:—
- Abnormal amounts of wasted materials, labour, or other production costs;
- Storage costs, unless those costs are necessary in the production process prior to a further production stage;
- Administrative overheads that do not contribute to bringing the inventories to their present location and condition;
- Selling costs.
- The Cost of inventories of items
- that are not ordinarily interchangeable; and
- goods or services produced and segregated for specific projects shall be assigned by specific identification of their individual costs.
- ‘Specific identification of cost’ means specific costs are attributed to identified items of inventory.
- Where there are a large numbers of items of inventory which are ordinarily interchangeable, specific identification of costs shall not be made.
First-in First-out and Weighted Average Cost Formula
- Cost of inventories, other than the inventory dealt with in paragraph 13, shall be assigned by using the First-in First-out (FIFO), or weighted average cost formula. The formula used shall reflect the fairest possible approximation to the cost incurred in bringing the items of inventory to their present location and condition.
- The FIFO formula assumes that the items of inventory which were purchased or produced first are consumed or sold first, and consequently the items remaining in inventory at the end of the period are those most recently purchased or produced. Under the weighted average cost formula, the cost of each item is determined from the weighted average of the cost of similar items at the beginning of a period and the cost of similar items purchased or produced during the period. The average shall be calculated on a periodic basis, or as each additional shipment is received, depending upon the circumstances.
Techniques for the Measurement of Cost
18(1) Techniques for the measurement of the cost of inventories, such as the standard cost method or the retail method, may be used for convenience if the results approximate the actual cost. Standard costs take into account normal levels of consumption of materials and supplies, labour, efficiency and capacity utilisation. They are regularly reviewed and, if necessary, revised in the light of the current conditions.
18(2) The retail method can be used in the retail trade for measuring inventories of large number of rapidly changing items that have similar margins and for which it is impracticable to use other costing methods. The cost of the inventory is determined by reducing from the sales value of the inventory, the appropriate percentage gross margin. The percentage used takes into consideration inventory, which has been marked down to below its original selling price. An average percentage for each retail department is to be used.
Net Realisable Value
- Inventories shall be written down to net realisable value on an item-by-item basis. Where ‘items of inventory’ relating to the same product line having similar purposes or end uses and are produced and marketed in the same geographical area and cannot be practicably evaluated separately from other items in that product line, such inventories shall be grouped together and written down to net realisable value on an aggregate basis.
- Net realisable value shall be based on the most reliable evidence available at the time of valuation. The estimates of net realisable value shall also take into consideration the purpose for which the inventory is held. The estimates shall take into consideration fluctuations of price or cost directly relating to events occurring after the end of previous year to the extent that such events confirm the conditions existing on the last day of the previous year.
- Materials and other supplies held for use in the production of inventories shall not be written down below the cost, where the finished products in which they shall be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above the cost. Where there has been a decline in the price of materials and it is estimated that the cost of finished products will exceed the net realisable value, the value of materials shall be written down to net realisable value which shall be the replacement cost of such materials.
Value of Opening Inventory
- The value of the inventory as on the beginning of the previous year shall be
- the cost of inventory available, if any, on the day of the commencement of the business when the business has commenced during the previous year; and
- the value of the inventory as on the close of the immediately preceding previous year, in any other case.
Change of Method of Valuation of Inventory
- The method of valuation of inventories once adopted by a person in any previous year shall not be changed without reasonable cause.
Valuation of Inventory in Case of Certain Dissolutions
- In case of dissolution of a partnership firm or association of person or body of individuals, notwithstanding whether business is discontinued or not, the inventory on the date of dissolution shall be valued at the net realisable value.
- Interest and other borrowing costs, which do not meet the criteria for recognition of interest as a component of the cost as per para 11, but included in the cost of the opening inventory as on the 1st day of April, 2016, shall be taken into account for determining cost of such inventory for valuation as on the close of the previous year beginning on or after 1 st day of April, 2016 if such inventory continue to remain part of inventory as on the close of the previous year beginning on or after 1st day of April, 2016.
- The following aspects shall be disclosed, namely:—
- the accounting policies adopted in measuring inventories including the cost formulae used. Where Standard Costing has been used as a measurement of cost, details of such inventories and a confirmation of the fact that standard cost approximates the actual cost; and
- the total carrying amount of inventories and its classification appropriate to a person.