Section 115-O provides for levy of Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT) on the company at the time when company distributes, declares or pays any dividend to its shareholders. Consequent to the levy of DDT the amount of dividend received by the shareholders is not included in the total income of the shareholder (subject to sec. 115BBDA). The consideration received by a shareholder on buy-back of shares by the company is not treated as dividend but is taxable as capital gains u/s 46A.
A company, having distributable reserves, has two options to distribute the same to its shareholders either by declaration and payment of dividends to the shareholders, or by way of purchase of its own shares (i.e. buy back of shares) at a consideration fixed by it. In the first case, the payment by company is subject to DDT and income in the hands of shareholders is exempt. In the second case the income is taxed in the hands of shareholder as capital gains.
Unlisted Companies, as part of tax avoidance scheme, are resorting to buy back of shares instead of payment of dividends in order to avoid payment of tax by way of DDT particularly where the capital gains arising to the shareholders are either not chargeable to tax or are taxable at a lower rate.
In order to curb such practice sec. 115QA has been inserted which provides:
- The asseessee is a Domestic company
- Its shares are not listed on any recognised stock exchange.
- The assessee-company has distributed income on buy back of its own shares from its shareholders
- “Buy-back” means purchase by a company of its own shares in accordance with the provisions of any law for the time being in force relating to companies
- “Distributed income” means the consideration paid by the company on buy-back of shares as reduced by the amount, which was received by the company for issue of such shares, determined in the manner as may be prescribed.
- Such company shall be liable to pay additional income-tax @ 20% (+ surcharge + cess) on the distributed income. Such tax is irrespective of the fact that the company is not liable for paying income tax on its income.
- The principal officer of the domestic company and the company shall be liable to pay the tax to the credit of the Central Government within 14 days from the date of payment of any consideration to the shareholder on buy-back of shares.
- The tax on the distributed income by the company shall be treated as the final payment of tax in respect of the said income and no further credit therefor shall be claimed by the company or by any other person in respect of the amount of tax so paid.
- No deduction under any other provision of this Act shall be allowed to the company or a shareholder in respect of the income which has been charged to tax under this section or the tax thereon.
Interest Payable for Non-payment of Tax by Company [Sec. 115QB]
Where the principal officer of the domestic company and the company fails to pay the tax on the aforesaid distributed income within 14 days, he or it shall be liable to pay simple interest @ 1% for every month or part thereof on the amount of such tax for the period beginning on the date immediately after the last date on which such tax was payable and ending with the date on which the tax is actually paid.
When Company is Deemed to be Assessee in Default [Sec. 115QC]
If any principal officer of a domestic company and the company does not pay tax on distributed income in accordance with the provisions of section 115QA, then, he or it shall be deemed to be an assessee in default in respect of the amount of tax payable by him or it and all the provisions of this Act for the collection and recovery of income-tax shall apply.